x86 instruction set architecture

architecture related to programming, including the native data types, instructions, AMD's original designation for this processor architecture, "x86-64", is still sometimes used for this purpose,[2] as is the variant "x86_64". AMD holds patents on techniques used in AMD64;[90][91][92] those patents must be licensed from AMD in order to implement AMD64. Intel® 64 and IA-32 architectures software developer's manual combined volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D: Instruction set reference, A-Z: This document contains the full instruction set reference, A-Z, in one volume. Full single/double floating point permute overwriting first source. Note: The ?PL registers are only available in 64-bit mode. The term is not synonymous with IBM PC compatibility, as this implies a multitude of other computer hardware; embedded systems, as well as general-purpose computers, used x86 chips before the PC-compatible market started,[c] some of them before the IBM PC (1981) itself. Also MMX registers and MMX support instructions were added.

However both proprietary and open-source x86 virtualization hypervisor products were developed using software-based virtualization. For the Intel 64-bit architecture in Itanium chips, see, "x64" redirects here. Some minicomputers like the PDP-11 used complex bank-switching schemes, or, in the case of Digital's VAX, redesigned much more expensive processors which could directly handle 32-bit addressing and data. Logical NAND and set mask for 32 or 64 bit integers. Operating system boot code, which might be stored in ROM, may place the processor into the protected mode to enable paging and other features.

However, one of the main concepts of the MMX instruction set is the concept of packed data types, which means instead of using the whole register for a single 64-bit integer (quadword), one may use it to contain two 32-bit integers (doubleword), four 16-bit integers (word) or eight 8-bit integers (byte). [34], This article is about Intel microprocessor architecture in general. The assembler will translate these to a RETN or a RETF depending on the memory model of the target system. The instruction set did not adopt the stack-like semantics so that existing operating systems could still correctly save and restore the register state when multitasking without modifications. The SSE2 introduced the capability to pack double precision numbers too, which 3DNow! Unlike its predecessors featuring a monolithic extension, it is divided into many subsets that specific models of CPUs can choose to implement.

As a result of AMD's 64-bit contribution to the x86 lineage and its subsequent acceptance by Intel, the 64-bit RISC architectures ceased to be a threat to the x86 ecosystem and almost disappeared from the workstation market. x86-64 began to be utilized in powerful supercomputers (in its AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon incarnations), a market which was previously the natural habitat for 64-bit RISC designs (such as the IBM POWER microprocessors or SPARC processors). The Intel 80386 extended offsets and also the segment limit field in each segment descriptor to 32 bits, enabling a segment to span the entire memory space. This would be approximately four billion times the size of the virtual address space on 32-bit machines. It branded its implementation of AMD64 as EM64T, and later re-branded it Intel 64. During execution, current x86 processors employ a few extra decoding steps to split most instructions into smaller pieces called micro-operations.

The 64-bit kernel, like the 32-bit kernel, supports 32-bit applications; both kernels also support 64-bit applications. This was also known as the NPX (Numeric Processor eXtension), an apt name since the coprocessors, while used mainly for floating-point calculations, also performed integer operations on both binary and decimal formats. Added with 6x86MX from Cyrix, deprecated now, PAVEB, PADDSIW, PMAGW, PDISTIB, PSUBSIW, PMVZB, PMULHRW, PMVNZB, PMVLZB, PMVGEZB, PMULHRIW, PMACHRIW. Returns data regarding processor identification and features, and returns data to the EAX, EBX, ECX, and EDX registers. Starting with the AMD Opteron processor, the x86 architecture extended the 32-bit registers into 64-bit registers in a way similar to how the 16 to 32-bit extension took place. Essential topics covered include: Basic

With very few exceptions, the 80486 and subsequent x86 processors then integrated this x87 functionality on chip which made the x87 instructions a de facto integral part of the x86 instruction set. on-package (Pentium II) or on-die (Celeron) L2 Cache, x86-64 is the 64-bit extended architecture of x86, its Legacy Mode preserves the entire and unaltered x86 architecture. Since then, FreeBSD has designated it as a Tier 1 platform. The processor supports a number of VIA-specific x86 extensions designed to boost efficiency in low-power appliances. Normally this prefix is used by protected and long mode code for the purpose of using 16-bit operands, as that code would be running in a code segment with a default operand size of 32 bits. This book focuses on those shared attributes (it does not cover those areas where the two companies have chosen widely divergent solutions which, by definition fall outside of the ISA specification).

Tom Shanley, President of MindShare, Inc., applied his 40 years of hardware and software experience with Intel processors (from the 4004 and 8008 through the Nehalem-based processors of today) to this ambitious undertaking. Each can be accessed as two separate bytes (thus BX's high byte can be accessed as BH and low byte as BL).

The Athlon 64 does not support HyperThreading and lacks those SSE3 instructions used only for HyperThreading. CS and SS are vital for the correct functioning of the program, so that only DS and ES can be used to point to data segments outside the program (or, more precisely, outside the currently executing segment of the program) or the stack. Some of the most significant changes[according to whom?] 32-bit x86 processors (starting with the 80386) also include various special/miscellaneous registers such as control registers (CR0 through 4, CR8 for 64-bit only), debug registers (DR0 through 3, plus 6 and 7), test registers (TR3 through 7; 80486 only), and model-specific registers (MSRs, appearing with the Pentium[o]). Stores the current-VMCS pointer into a specified memory address. Two MSRs of particular interest are SYSENTER_EIP_MSR and SYSENTER_ESP_MSR, introduced on the Pentium® II processor, which store the address of the kernel mode system service handler and corresponding kernel stack pointer. Mode Memory Addressing Code, Calls and Privilege Checks Data and Stack Segments IA-32 Shuffle the eight 32-bit vector elements of one 256-bit source operand into a 256-bit destination operand, with a register or memory operand as selector. In practice, 64-bit operating systems generally do not support 16-bit applications, although modern versions of Microsoft Windows contain a limited workaround that effectively supports 16-bit. In its literature and product version names, Microsoft and Sun refer to AMD64/Intel 64 collectively as x64 in the Windows and Solaris operating systems. Compares ES:[(E)DI] with DS:[(E)SI] and increments or decrements both (E)DI and (E)SI, depending on DF; can be prefixed with REP, Unlike CWD, CWDE sign-extends AX to EAX instead of AX to DX:AX, Interrupt return; D suffix means 32-bit return, F suffix means do not generate epilogue code (i.e. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the “brains” of your device, but it’s not exactly smart. For example, if DS is A000h and SI is 5677h, DS:SI will point at the absolute address DS × 10h + SI = A5677h. [3][4] Other companies, such as Microsoft[6] and Sun Microsystems/Oracle Corporation,[5] use the contraction "x64" in marketing material.

Intel's official launch of Intel 64 (under the name EM64T at that time) in mainstream desktop processors was the N0 stepping Prescott-2M.

If you’re looking for a comprehensive book designed to bootstrap you up quickly on virtually all aspects of the x86 32/64-bit Instruction Set Architecture (ISA), we respectfully ask you to consider this book. Prefetch to non-temporal cache structure, minimizing cache pollution. Refer to all three volumes when evaluating your This appears to be a design flaw. These bits are set to all ones by any MMX instruction, which correspond to the floating point representation of NaNs or infinities. However, random access to the stack registers can be obtained through an instruction which exchanges any specified ST(x) with ST(0). Ziabari A, Sun Y, Ma Y, Schaa D, Abellán J, Ubal R, Kim J, Joshi A and Kaeli D. The ACM Digital Library is published by the Association for Computing Machinery. The operating system can also limit the virtual address space. Alternatively, conditionally writes any number of elements from a SIMD vector register operand to a vector memory operand, leaving the remaining elements of the memory operand unchanged.

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