principle of compass surveying


Principle of Magnetic […] This can be done either by adjusting the tripod stands or by using a plumb-bob. Principle of Compass Surveying . Magnetic Compass Used in Surveying -Principles & Types. Sometimes, a pebble can be freely dropped from this center to the bottom of the instrument to check the centering. The compass is initially held over the starting station of the survey line and the adjustments are provided. It consists of a pair of sights which is used to measure the horizontal angle. It may be due to electric wired , steel structures, railroads, underground iron pipes, etc. A compass is small instrument which consists essentially of magnetic needle, a graduated circle and a line of sight. It is done with the help of tripod stand and is checked by dropping a small pebble below the Centre of compass. The surveyor’s compass is usually mounted over a tripod and leveled by using ball and socket mechanism. Also Read: What is Whole Bearing System (WBS) and Quadrantal Bearing System (QBS) in Surveying? .

The main two types of magnetic compass employed are a prismatic compass and a surveyor compass.

He is an Author and Co-Founder at ProCivilEngineer.com Website. If the magnetic needle is not perfectly straight or if it is sluggish, readings may not be accurate. PRECAUTIONS In a compass (prismatic) which uses Whole Circle Bearing (0⁰ to 360⁰) system the included angle is given by, Included angle = F.B of next line — B.B of previous line at same station. Compass Surveying – Advantages & Disadvantages with Example, Instruments for the direct measurements:-, Difference between Prismatic and Surveying Compass :-, Free Plaster Calculator with EXCEL (2020 Updated), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277611855_Compass_measurement_-_still_a_suitable_surveying_method_in_specific_conditions, False Ceiling Designs – 1500+ With Latest Catalog 2020, Types of Bricks – Best 10 Classification of Bricks with Details, Various Components or Parts of a Staircase and their Details, Materials Used in Construction – List of 72 Basic items, Septic Tank – The Complete Guide 2020 Edition. The figure-4 below shows the sectional view of a surveyor’s compass. [PDF], Calculate Quantities of Materials for Concrete -Cement, Sand, Aggregates, Methods of Rainwater Harvesting [PDF]: Components, Transport, and Storage. It is easily subjected to various errors such as errors adjoining to magnetic meridian, local attraction etc.

(ii)The eye vane consists of a small metal vane with slit. Compass survey uses the principle of traversing.

Can this type of brick bond be used for bearing walls? No observation errors occur. When the line of sight is directed towards a line, the magnetic needle points towards magnetic meridian and the angle which the line makes with the magnetic meridian is read at the graduated circle.

Sign Up to The Constructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people. You are Here » Pro Civil Engineer . Fly Ash Bricks – Why Everyone Recommend this in 2020? It contains a prism which is used for accurate measurement of readings. 3. A meridian is any direction such as True Meridian and Magnetic Meridian and Arbitrary Meridian. The magnetic meridian is the basis on which the magnetic compass measures the directions. from the south ( 0 degrees) to West (90 degrees) and North (180 degrees) and East (270 degrees). If the magnetic meridian is to right side(or Eastern Side) of the true meridian than declination is said to be Eastern or positive declination. The main features of a Magnetic compass are: The purpose of the magnetic needle is to establish the magnetic meridian. In this method, the position of different points are plotted on a plan with reference to two lines yy 1 (y-axis) and xx 1 (x-axis) which are respectively parallel and perpendicular to the meridian (Fig. Compass Surveying Unit-II 2. b) Compass Surveying. This method does not requires the need to create triangles. Principle of compass surveying lies in the fact that the readings or a graduated circle are the angles which a line makes with the magnetic meridian.
Traverse consists of series of straight lines connected together to form an open or closed traverse. You will receive a link and will create a new password via email. VIP members get additional benefits.

2. Compass surveying is mainly employed in areas that is free from local attraction. The ring is graduated and is read by reflecting prism.

In such an area, the method of traversing is adopted. Join the crew to get best of the Civil Engineering. This is merely dependent on the type of compass employed for the measurement. It uses a prismatic compass for measuring magnetic bearing of line and the distance is measured by chain. A series of connecting lines is prepared using compass and measuring distances using chain. (i)The Object vane consists of metal vane with a vertical hair. What is the reinforced concrete deep beam and where it used? This method is generally used for plotting precise work, mainly a theodolite traverse, both closed and open. MEASUREMENT OF INCLUDED ANGLE

This needle swings over a bass circle which is divided into 360 degrees. com » Surveying » Compass Surveying – Advantages & Disadvantages with Example.

If the plane of sight not being vertical, it also causes error in sighting and reading. Centering: In this step, the instrument is kept exactly over the station point. Read More at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277611855_Compass_measurement_-_still_a_suitable_surveying_method_in_specific_conditions.

when there is a time limit for surveying, compass surveying is usually adopted, They have fewer settings to fix it on a station. This measurement is directly done on the surface of the earth. Levelling: The instrument must be held such that the graduated disc swings freely and when viewed from the top edge it must appear level. (ii)The eye vane consist of metal vane with fine slit.

They are: Surveyor’s compass is an instrument used in surveying to measure horizontal angles. In compass traversing, the compass is used to determine the direction of survey lines of the framework of the traverse for measuring the angles which these lines make with the magnetic meridian. The bearings can be measured either in the whole bearing system (WBS) or Quadrantal Bearing System (QBS). There are two forms of compass as under -: Prismatic compass is a portable magnetic compass which can be either used as a hand instrument or can be fitted on a tripod. Whenever in traversing compass is used for making angular measurements, it is known as compass traversing or compass surveying. Copyright © All rights reserved | Theme by, Track Alignment in Railways | Requirements and factors | Rack Railways |, Surveying in Railway | Survey for Track Alignment | Step by Step Details |, Interlocking of Signals and Points | Methods and Devices used |, Highest Paying Countries for Civil Engineers, Construction steps for laying of cement concrete Pavement slab. Prismatic compass uses WCB (0⁰­­-360⁰) circular ring while as the surveyors compass uses Quadrantal Bearing (0⁰­­-90⁰) circular ring system.
It is less precise compared to other advanced methods of surveying. They are: Prismatic compass is a portable magnetic compass which can be either used as a hand instrument or can be fitted on a tripod. They can be done only in the circumstances where the internal parts of the prism is disturbed or damaged. Also, the compass surveying method make use of a compass to carry out the angular measurements.

Diametrically opposite to the prism is the object vane hinged to the box side carrying a horse hair with which the object in the field is bisected.

The bearing of a line is its directions relative to a given meridian. It can be held in hand or in a tripod stand for carrying out the measurement. Compass surveying Prismatic Compass Compass traversing Important Definition. What is Whole Bearing System (WBS) and Quadrantal Bearing System (QBS) in Surveying? Compass consists of cylindrical metal box of about 8-12 cm diameter in the center of which is a pivot carrying a magnetic needle which is already attached to the graduated aluminum ring. It contains a prism which is used for accurate measurement of readings.

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